TK Resources


Includes Best Practices, Traditional Knowledge Centres, Traditional Knowledge Newsletters, Traditional Knowledge Websites, and Traditional Knowledge Literature. This material is excerpted from the Partnership Guidelines for ease of reading here.


The following are a few of the most important traditional knowledge web sites to be found on the Internet. When searching for information the term “Aboriginal” tends to be used by Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, “Native American” or “Indian” by the United States of America, and “Indigenous” by the rest of the world. This can be helpful in specifying your search.

Organization WebSite
Aboriginal Canada Elders Traditional Knowledge Portal
Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs Policy work for Mi’kmaq, Malisset, Innu, and Passamaquody First Nations
Aurora Research Institute A division of Aurora College
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights
Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada Consultation and Traditional Knowledge
Bill’s Aboriginal Links List of TK and other aboriginal information
Canada`s Polar Life (U of Guelph) Indigenous taxonomy, mythology, Tree of Life, etc.
Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC) Long-term environmental and social well-being of Northern Canada and its peoples.
Centre for Indigenous Environmental Resources Sustainable First Nations Communities and a Healthy Environment
Centre for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development (CIKARD) A Center within Iowa State University
Centre for World Indigenous Studies Wider understanding and appreciation of the ideas and knowledge of Indigenous peoples
Convention on Biological Diversity – Article 8(j) The cop out article defaulting to national legislation
Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) Reducing global poverty and helping people to take charge of their own destiny
Dene Cultural Institute Coordinating research and education to promote Dene culture, languages spirituality, heritage, tradition and customs
Eagle’s Nest Indian Village Advisory and Advocacy services to all 7 nations in Treaty 7
EJISDC Electronic Journal of Informaiton Systems in Developing Countries
Environment and Natural Resources NWT Canada Featuring a traditional knowledge annual report
Four World’s International Institute A TK resource base for information and assistance
Gwich`in Social and Cultural Institute Gwich’in Traditional Knowledge Policy
Honey Bee A Newsletter of Creativity and Innovation at the Grassroots
Honour the Earth Native-led organization: geographic and political isolation; funding for change
Igloolik Research Centre A research facility of Nunavut Arctic College
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada Re-named from Indian and Northern Affairs
Indian Specific Claims Commission Renamed from the Indian Claims Commission, now disbanded
Indian World
Indigenous Environmental Network Native peoples of the Americas organization for education, coalition building, and action
First Peoples World Wide Originally called Indigenous Keepers Program
Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor Archive location for the Monitor (1993 to 2001)
IBIN Indigenous Peoples Biodiversity Information Network
International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests. World wide network fighting for indigenous and tribal forest peoples’ rights
International Development Research Centre, Canada Canadian government research organization working in many aeas including traditional knowledge
Inuit Circumpolar Conference Multi-national NGO linking 15,000 Inuit worldwide
KIVU Nature Inc. A source for information on traditional knowledge and environmental assessment guidelines
Metis CentreMetis Nation Carries out research on traditional knowledge and its future Downloadable information on traditional knowledge
Native Science Began with the Arctic Contaminiation Conference and carries out TK research in the Arctic
Native Web Resources for Indigenous Cultures from around the World
Native Alaska Alaska Native Heritage Center representing 11 cultural groups
American Indian Heritage Foundaiton Established in 1973 to provide relief services to Indian people nationwide
Native Net A resource for native craft infromation
Nevada Indian Environmental Coalition See the Tribal Court Clearinghouse
North American Native Online The resource center for Native Art
Nclear Waste Management Organization Featuring KIVU photos and video
Parliament of Canada TK and Intellectual Property Rights
Samefolket (Sweden) Cultural resources for the Same (in Swedish)
Santa Rosa Carib Community of Trinidad and Tobago One of the few Carib communities left in the West Indies
Schoolnet First Nations Web Site A program of the Saskatchewan Regional Management Organization
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library Has informaiton on bio-piracy of traditional knowledge for medicines
UNESCO (Case Studies) Database of best practices on Indigenous Knowledge (no longer maintained)
United Nations University TK Initiative Resources, news, TK and climate change, newsetter, pdfs of treaties,
Wildlife Management Advisory Council (Yukon) To protect and conserve wildlife, habitat and traditionall Inuvialuit use within the Yukon North Slope
World Bank The World Bank Africa program (47 countries)
World Conservation Union (IUCN) The IUCN is a multi-national governmental organization and its work is important to many indigenous peoples
World Intellectual Property Organization Traditional Knowledge as intellectual property is fraught with issues. The WIPO has made some progress



Best Practices

Best practices for project planning to include indigenous traditional knowledge have not been well established. By adhering to the practices suggested here, planners and managers can minimize the risk to both project and people. This list, however, is not a step-by-step outline for project planning or implementation. Regional and local variations are extremely important. Being open-minded, sensitive to other cultures, and able to accept another person’s completely different way of solving problems is essential. Remember, most project planners have already decided the project should move ahead, and are concerned with how that should be done. Whereas, most indigenous communities who are being asked to participate, will be assessing why the project should go ahead, not how.

  1. Use the simple definition: indigenous peoples are self-identifiable as a people, wholly or partially self-governed, and live within a larger nation.
  2. Recognize that indigenous knowledge is a way of life, an experience-based relationship with family, spirits, animals, plants, and the land, an understanding and wisdom gained through generations of observation and teaching that uses indirect signals from nature or culture to predict future events or impacts.
  3. Weave indigenous peoples and their traditional knowledge systems as full partners in the design of a project when indigenous people are directly or indirectly affected by the project.
  4. In acquiring indigenous traditional knowledge:
    • Cause no harm.
    • Define the roles and responsibilities of participants carefully and in line with culture and knowledge systems.
    • Define the information to be collected; specify taboo information as outside the project limits. Establish the use, ownership, and the means to interpret or communicate information at the outset.
  5. Recognize that including traditional knowledge systems in projects requires respect, trust, equity, and empowerment of indigenous peoples and of the traditional knowledge system.
  6. Protect and transfer to indigenous communities or individuals, any value-added concepts that arise from the indigenous traditional knowledge holders as a direct result of the project.
  7. Build in opportunities for indigenous peoples to benefit directly from value-added concepts derived from traditional knowledge so the indigenous community benefits from the commercial use of their traditional knowledge.
  8. Enable indigenous peoples to define the aspects of their traditional knowledge that are for public consumption and those aspects that are private and confidential.
  9. Respect and protect indigenous traditional rights to natural resources.
  10. Ask where the development would best take place, do not ask where development should not take place.
  11. Recognize that indigenous peoples feel that they belong to the land, so they may not easily accept changing it, or their relationship to it, in any radical way.
  12. Engage traditional knowledge systems before initial decisions have been taken to help predict the impacts of a project. Be prepared to abandon the project or vastly modify it if there is a risk of harm to indigenous peoples.
  13. Leave broad margins for error in predictive models, and include the socio-economic costs of the often invisible economy of ‘women’s work’ and the special vulnerability that indigenous women face.
  14. Understand the local customs and etiquette and train staff who will interact with indigenous peoples before contact.
  15. Distinguish between local and indigenous communities, and ensure both have roles; local communities as stakeholders in the dominant culture, and indigenous people as a group with special traditional rights.
  16. Make the participatory approach fit the cultural sensitivity of the indigenous community. Successful strategies variously include round tables or talking circles, training the trainers, co-management, and participatory action research.
  17. Participation by indigenous peoples as autonomous groups is an essential ingredient to developing both mutual understanding and consensus to set strategic objectives, define a chain of expected results, identify underlying assumptions and risks, and select appropriate performance indicators.
  18. Include traditional knowledge early and as an honest complement to scientific or western approaches.
  19. Developing self-sustainability is an integral part of traditional knowledge systems. It is beneficial to include their knowledge systems in both the interpretation of the knowledge and in its implementation by relying on credible traditional knowledge holders.
  20. Assess the credibility of sources of traditional knowledge by using the community as a source of credentials.
  21. Using science and traditional knowledge together in co-management or participatory action research can be a powerful tool to improve the effectiveness of projects, but it requires a relationship based on trust and respect for each other’s information and for the different methodologies used.
  22. Protocols for acquisition of traditional knowledge should be defined by the indigenous community and agreed to by all parties.
  23. Instead of using time scales in project planning, it is sometimes better to use indicators based on the traditions indigenous people.
  24. Build in mechanisms that provide increasingly important decision-making capacity for indigenous peoples as the risk increases to their communities.
  25. Cause no harm to indigenous peoples because of working within another government’s priorities.
  26. Understand the host jurisdiction’s laws and regulations regarding indigenous peoples including constitutional rights, relevant legislation, policy statements, and recent practices.
  27. Engage traditional knowledge practitioners the same way western knowledge engages scientists and other professionals, to make full use of traditional knowledge and its multi-generational wisdom.
  28. Avoid a strategy of including indigenous peoples too late or in a trivial manner; it places both the indigenous people and the project at risk.
  29. Build in safeguards to protect indigenous communities that are extremely vulnerable to unfair exploitation because of lack of experience with, or non-acceptance of, monetary-based systems of resource sharing.


Indigenous Knowledge Centre Mailing Address
ARCIK African Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Nigeria) Prof. Adedotun Phillips, DirectorDr. Tunji Titilola, Research Coordinator Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, PMB 5 – UI Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria. Tel: +234-22-400500Fax: +234-22-416129 or
APIK Association for the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge Dr. Amare Dejene, DirectorAddis Ababa UniversityP.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaTel/Fax:
BARCIK Bangladesh Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Bangladesh) IARD, 5/13, Block E, Lalmatia, Dhaka – 1207, Bangladesh.
BRARCIK Brazilian Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Brazil) UNESP, Dept. Biologia, 14870.000 Jaboticabal, SP,
BURCIK Burkina Faso Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Burkina Faso)(Centre Burkinabè de Recherche sur les Pratiques et Savoirs Paysans) Dr Basga E. Dialla H. (INNS), Director B.P. 5154, Ouagadougou 02, Burkina Faso. Tel: +226-360746 Fax: +226-315003
CARICKS Centre for Advanced Research on Indigenous Knowledge Systems (India) P.O. Box 1, Swaraswathipuram, Mysore 570009, India
GHARCIK Ghana Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Dr. M. Bonsu, Interim DirectorSchool of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Cape CoastTel: +233-42-2240-9/2480-9 Telex: +233-42-2552 UCC GH
CECIK Centre for Cosmovisions and Indigenous Knowledge (Ghana) Dr. David Millar, Director c/o T.A.A.P., P.O. Box 42, Tamale, Northern Region, Ghana. Tel: +233-71-22000
CIKARD Centre for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development (United States) Dr Norma Wolff, Interim Director 318 Curtiss hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 50011, USA Tel: +1-515-294 7139 Fax: +1-515-294 6058
CIKFAB Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Fourah Bay College (Sierra Leone) Dr Dominic T. Ashley, Director Department of Sociology, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Tel: +232-22-7387
CIKFIM Centre for Indigenous Knowledge in Farm and Infrastructure Management (Nigeria) Centre for Food and Agricultural Strategy, University of Agriculture, Private mail Bag 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria
CIKIB Centre for Indigenous Knowledge on Indian Bioresources (India)) c/o Institute of Ethnobiology, National Botanical Research Institute, P.O. Box 436, Lucknow 226001, India
CIKO Cameroon Indigenous Knowledge Organisation (Cameroons): Prof. C.N. Ngwasiri, Director P.O. Box 170, Buea, South West Province, Cameroon Tel: +237-322181 Fax: +237-322181/430813
CIKFIM Centre for Indigenous Knowledge in Farm and Infrastructure Management Dr. G.B. Ayoola, DirectorCentre for Food and Agricultural StrategyUniversity of AgriculturePrivate Mail Bag 2373Makurdi, NigeriaTel: +234-44-533204 Fax: +234-44-31020 (box 5)
CIKPREM Centre for Indigenous Knowledge on Population Resource and Environmental Management (Nigeria) Prof. D.S. ObikezeDepartment of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
CIRAN Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks (Netherlands) Dr G.W. von Liebenstein, DirectorCIRAN/Nuffic P.O. Box 29777, 2502 LT The Hague, The Netherlands. or Tel: +31-70-4260321 Fax: +31-70-4260329
CTK Centre for Traditional Knowledge (Canada) 240 McLeod St, 3rd Floor east, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 6P4.
ELLRIK Elliniko Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Greece) Medical School, Department of Social Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1393, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
GERCIK Georgia Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Georgia) Institute of Botany, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Kodjorl schosse #1, 380007 Tbilisi, Georgia.
GHARCICK Ghana Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Ghana) School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
ICIK Interinstitutional Consortium for Indigenous Knowledge (United States of America) Ladi Semali, Director The Pennsylvania State University, 254 Chambers building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Tel: +1-814-865-6565 Fax: +1-814-863-7602
INRIK Indonesian Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Indonesia UPT Inrik-Unpad, Ruang K-3< JI, Dipati UKUR 35, Bandung 40132, West Java, Indonesia.
INRESC Indigenous Resource Study Centre (Ethiopia) Dr Tesema Ta’a, DirectorCollege of Social Sciences Adis Adaba University, P.O. Box 1176, Adis Adaba, Ethiopia. Tel/Fax: +251-1-550655
KENRIK Kenya Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Kenya) Dr Rashid Aman, Director The National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254-2-744 233 Fax: +254-2-741424
LEAD Leiden Ethnosystems and Development Programme (Netherlands) Dr. L. Jan Slikkerveer. Director Institute of Cultural and Social StudiesUniversity of Leiden, P.O. Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands. tel.31-71-273469: fax 31-71-273619
MARCIK Madagascar Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Madagascar) Ms Juliette Ratsimandrava Centre d’Information et de Documentation et Technique, B.P. 6224, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar. tel/fax: +261-2-32123/20422
MARECIK Maasai Resource Centre for indigenous Knowledge (Tanzania) Dr Nathan Ole Lengisugi Simanjiro Animal Husbandry Vocational Training Centre, P.O. Box 3084, Arusha, Tanzania
NIRCIK Nigerian Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Nigeria) Dr J.O. Olukosi, Coordinator Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria. Tel: +234-69-50571-4 Ext. 4322, Fax: +234-69-50891/50563Telex: 75248 NITEZ NG
PHIRCSDIK Philippine Resource Centre for Sustainable Development and Indigenous Knowledge (Philippines) Philippine Council for Research, Forestry and Natural Resources Development, Paseo de Valmayor, P.O. Box 425, Los Banos, Laguna, The Philippines.
REPPIKA Regional Program for the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge in Asia (Philippines) International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite 4118, The Philippines.
RIDSCA Mexican Research, Teaching and Service Network on Indigenous Knowledge (Mexico) Government centre. Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Puebla, Apartado Postal l-12, C.P. 72130, Col. La Libertad, Puebla, Pue. Mexico.
RURCIK Russian Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Russia) EkoNiva, P.O. Box 1, Nemchinovka -1, Moscow Region, Russia 143013
SARCIK South African Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (South Africa) Alwijn Dippenaar, Executive Director The Institute for Indigenous Theory and Practice, P.O. Box 2355, Somerset West, 7129 South Africa. Tel: +27-21-8543299
SLARCIK Sri Lanka Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Sri Lanka) University of Sri Jayewardenapura, Forestry Building, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
UNCST Uganda National Council for Science and Technology Director Dr. Zerubabel M. NyiiraPlot 10 Kampala RoadUganda House, 11th Floor, P.O.B. 6884, Kampala, UgandaTel: +256 – 41 – 25 0499, Fax: +256 – 41 – 23 4579Email:
URURCIK Uruguayan Resource Center for Indigenous Knowledge (Uruguay) CEDESUR P.O. Box 20.201, Sayago, Montevideo, 12,900, Uruguay.
VERSIK enezuelan Resource Secretariat for Indigenous Knowledge (Venezuela) Centre for Tropical Alternative Agriculture and Sustainable Development, University of the Andes, Núcleo “Rafael Range”, Apartado Postal #22, Trujillo, Venezuela.
YORCIK Yoruba Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Nigeria) Centre for Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
ZIRCIK Zimbabwe Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Wahington Chipfunde, Director and Wilbert Sadomba78 Kaguvi Street, New Book House, P.O.B. 4209, Harare, ZimbabweTelephone: 263 (0)4 781 770 / 1, Fax: 263 (0)4 751 202E-mail:


BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION STRATEGY UPDATE. Biological Resources and Institutions Program, World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006 USA.

CIKARD News. Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development, 318 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 USA.

GATE – German Appropriate Technology Exchange, GTZ, Eschborn

HONEY BEE: Newsletter for Documentation and Experimentation of Local Innovations Developed by Farmers, Pastoralists,

ARTISANS, AND HORTICULTURALISTS. Centre for Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad-380015, India.

IFPP Newsletter. Indigenous Food Plants Programme, P.O. Box 48108, Nairobi, Kenya.

ILEIA Newsletter. Information Centre for Low-External-Input Agriculture, P.O. Box 64, 3830 AB Leusden, The Netherlands.

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOPMENT MONITOR: Newsletter of the Global Network of Indigenous Knowledge Resource Centers. CIRAN, P.O. Box 90734, 2509 LS The Hague, The Netherlands.

INTERNATIONAL TRADITIONAL MEDICINE NEWSLETTER. Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois, P.O. Box 6998, Chicago, Illinois 60680-6998 USA.


LE GRENIER, Service Inter Africaine de Technologiees Appropriees, Burkina Faso

SEEDLING. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN), Apartado 23398, E-08080 Barcelona, Spain.

IWGIA Newsletter. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Fiolstraede 10, DK-1171 Copenhagen K, Denmark.

IK NOTES, World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington D.C. 20433 Monthly Newsletter in English, French, Portuguese and soon on local languages


The selections included in this list are intended to assist the reader in broadening information on topics in the handbook and also to suggest where case studies can be found. There are very few titles that directly describe how to include traditional knowledge in development projects, but this list includes most that are available. Finally, because indigenous resource rights, indigenous intellectual property rights and land ownership are complicated topics, some of the references refer to these issues.

Abel, K. and J. Friesen. 1991. Aboriginal Resource Use in Canada; Historical and Legal Aspects. 343 pp. Umiversity of Manitoba Press, Winnipeg.

Adamowicz, W., T. Beckley, and W. Phillips 1998. “In Search of Forest Resource Values on Indigenous peoples: Are Nonmarket Valuation Techniques Applicable?” Society and Natural Resources 11(1):51-66.

Agrawal, Arun. 1995. “Neither Having One’s Cake, Nor Eating It; Intellectual Property Rights and ‘Indigenous’ Knowledge.” Common Property Resource Digest 36:1-5.

Akimichi, Tomoya. 1995. “Indigenous Resource Management and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.” Anthropological Science 103(4):321-327.

Alcorn, Janis B. 1990. “Indigenous Agroforestry Systems in the Latin American Tropics.” In Agroecology and Small Farm Development. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Altieri, M.A. and L.C. Merrick (1987a) ‘In situ conservation of crop genetic resources through maintenance of traditional farming systems’, Economic Botany 41(1):86-96. Altieri, M.A.(1987) ‘The significance of diversity in the maintenance of the sustainability of traditional agroecosystems’, ILEIA Newsletter 3(2):3-7.

Altieri, M.A., M.K. Anderson and L.C. Merrick (1987b) ‘Peasant agriculture and the conservation of crop and wild plant resources’, Conservation Biology 1(1):49-58.

Anderson, R. B. 1997. “Corporate/Indigenous Partnerships in Economic Development: The First Nations in Canada.” World Development 25(9):1483-.

Ashby, J.A., T. Gracia, M. del P. Guerrero, C.A. Quirós, I.J. Roa and J.A. Beltrán (1995) ‘Organizing experimenting farmers for participation in agricultural research and technology development’. Paper presented at the Workshop entitled ‘Traditional and modern systems of natural resource management in Latin America’. Washington D.C.: World Bank.

Atran, S. (1990) Cognitive foundations of natural history: towards an anthropology of science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Atteh, Oluwayomi David. 1992. Indigenous Local Knowledge as Key to Local Level Development: Possibilities, Constraints and Planning Issues in the Context of Africa. Ames, IO: Technology and Social Change Programme, Iowa State University in collaboration with Leiden Ethnosystems and development Programme (LEAD), Leiden University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, no. 20).

Babu, S. C. and B. Rajasekaran 1991. “Agroforestry, Attitudes Towards Risk and Nutritional Availability: A Case Study of South Indian Farming Systems.” Agroforestry Systems 15 (1): 1-16.

Babu, S. C., D. M. Warren and B. Rajasekaran. 1994. “Expert Systems for Utilizing Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Farming Systems Research: The Case of Crop Varietal Selection.” In D. M. Warren, L. J. Slikkerveer, and D. Brokensha (eds.) The Cultural Dimension of Development: Indigenous Knowledge Systems, London : Intermediate Technology Publications (in press).

Badri, B. and A. Badri (1994) ‘Women and biodiversity’, Development, Journal of SID 1:67-71.

Barreiro, Jose. 1991. “Indigenous peoples Are the ‘Miner’s Canary’ of the Human Family.” In Learning to Listen to the Land. W. B. Willers, ed. Washington, DC: Island.

Bellon, M.R. and S.B. Brush (1994) ‘Keepers of maize in Chiapas, Mexico’, Economic Botany 48(2):196-209.

Benzing, A. (1989) ‘Andean Potato peasants are ‘seed bankers’, ILEIA Newsletter 5(4):12-13.

Berkes, F. and C. Folke (1994) ‘Linking social and ecological systems for resilience and sustainability’. Paper presented at the Workshop on property rights and the performance of natural resource systems. Stockholm: The Badger International Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Berkes, Fikret, Peter George, and Richard J. Preston 1991. “Co-Management: The Evolution in Theory and Practice of the Joint Administration of Living Resources.” Alternatives 18(2):12-18.

Berkes, Fikret. 1995. “Indigenous Knowledge and Resource Management Systems: A Native Canadian Case Study from James Bay.” In Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context; Case Studies and Design Applications. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe, eds. Washington, DC: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank.

Berlin, B. (1992) Ethnobiological classification: principles of categorization of plants and animals in traditional societies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Brouwer, Jan. 1998. “On Indigenous Knowledge and Development.” Current Anthropology 39(3):351-. Brush, Stephen, and Doreen Stabinsky 1995. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous peoples and Intellectual Property Rights. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Bunyard, P.(1994) ‘Bringing back the balance: Alternative economics for the Colombian Amazon’, ILEIA Newsletter 10(2):10-11.

Cashman, K. “Indigenous Knowledge and International Agricultural Research; Where Do We Go From Here?” pp. 10-20, In D. M. Warren, L. J. Slikkerveer, and S. O. Titilola (eds.), Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. Studies in Technology and Social Change No. 11. Ames, Iowa: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University.

Caufield, Catherine. 1998. “Selling A Piece of Your Mother.” Whole Earth:58-73.

Chambers, R., A. Pacey, and L.A. Thrupp (eds) (1989) Farmer First: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Chapin, M.(1988) ‘The seduction of models: Chinampa agriculture in Mexico’, Grassroots Development 12(1):8-17.

Chatty, Dawn. 1966. Mobile Pastoralists: Development Planning and Social Change in Oman. New York: Columbia University Press.

Clarke, Jeanette, ed. 1994. Building on Indigenous Natural Resource Management: Forestry Practices in Zimbabwe’s Communal Lands. Harare, Zimbabwe: Earthware Publishing Services.

Davies, S. and Ebbe, K. (1995) Traditional knowledge and sustainable development; proceedings of a conference, held at the World Bank in September 1993, World Bank, Environmentally sustainable development proceedings Series No.4 Washington D.C.

Dei, George J. S. 1993. “Indigenous African Knowledge Systems: Local Traditions of Sustainable Forestry.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 14(1):28-41.

DeWalt, Billie R. 1994. “Using Indigenous Knowledge to Improve Agriculture and Natural Resource Management.” Human Organization 53(2)

Donighi, P. 1994. Indigenous or Aboriginal Rights to Property: A Papua New Guinea Perspective. Utrecht, Netherlands: International Books.

Drahos, Peter. 1997. “Indigenous Knowledge and the Duties of Intellectual Property Owners.” Intellectual Property Journal 11(2):179-.

Drolet, Charles A., Austin Reed, Mimi Breton, and Fikret Berkes 1986. “Sharing Wildlife Management Responsibilities with Native Groups: Case Histories in Northern Quebec.” Transactions of the 52nd North American Wildlife and National Resources Conference 52:389-398.

Easton, P. (editor, unpublished, 1998) Decentralization, self Governance and local capacity building in the Sahel: Results of the PADLOS-Education Study, Club du Sahel, OECD and CILSS

Ellen, R. and Harris, H (1996). Concepts of indigenous environmental knowledge in scientific and development studies literature – A critical assessment; draft paper East-West Environmental Linkages Network Workshop 3, Canterbury

Emery, 1997. Guidelines for Environmental Assessments and Traditional Knowledge. 67 pp. CIDA, Ottawa, Canada.

Erickson, C.L. (1994) ‘Raised fields as a sustainable Agricultural System from Amazonia’. Paper presented in the Symposium entitled ‘Recovery of indigenous technology and resources in Bolivia’. Atlanta: XVIII International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association.

FAO (1993a) ‘From forum to the field: NGO perspectives and concern’, Deep, Development Education Exchange Papers 11-13.

FAO (1993b) ‘Ciencia Indígena y biodiversidad’, pp. 4-6 in La diversidad de la naturaleza: Un patrimonio valisio.

Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria. 1993. “The Role of Ecological Perception in Indigenous Resource Management: A Case Study from the Mongolian Forest-Steppe.” Nomadic Peoples 33:31-46.

Flavier, J.M. et al. (1995) ‘The regional program for the promotion of indigenous knowledge in Asia’, pp. 479-487 in Warren, D.M., L.J. Slikkerveer and D. Brokensha (eds) The cultural dimension of development: Indigenous knowledge systems. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Garming, Maximo B. 1984. “The Use of Indigenous Institutions as an Approach to Rural Development; A Case of an Upland Community.” Philippine Journal of Public Administration 28(3):227-250.

Greaves, Tom. 1994. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous peoples: A Sourcebook. Oklahoma City, OK: Society for Applied Anthropology.

Grenier, L. (1998) Working with Indigenous Knowledge – A Guide for Researchers, IDRC, Ottawa

Gupta, Anil K. 1994 “The Honey Bee has Stung!” Forests, Trees and People Newsletter(18):8-16.

Gupta, Anil K. 1996. “The Honey Bee Network: Voices from Grassroots Innovators.” Cultural Survival Quarterly 20(1):57-60.

Hambly, H.; Onweng, A. T., ed. (1996) Experience and perspectives from eastern and southern Africa IDRC Ottawa

Haverkort, B., W. Hiemstra, C. Reijntjes and S. Essers (1988) ‘Strengthening farmers’ capacity for technology development’, ILEIA Newsletter 4(3): 3-7.

Hecht, S.B. and D.A. Posey (1989) ‘Preliminary results of soil management techniques of the Kayap’ Indians’, Advances in Economic Botany (7): 174-188.

Hobart, M. (ed.) (1993) Introduction: the growth of ignorance? An anthropological critique of development London: Routledge, pp. 1-30.

Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T. (eds.) (1983) The invention of tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hunn, E. (1993) What is traditional ecological knowledge? In Traditional ecological knowledge: wisdom for sustainable development. N. Williams and G. Baines (eds.) Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, ANU, pp. 13-15

Hyvarinen, Heikki J. 1993. “The Legal Status of Rights to Resources in Finnish Lapland.” In Common Property Regimes: Law and Management of Non-Private Resources; Proceedings of the Conference, Vol. II. E. Berge and D. Ott, eds. Ås, Norway: The Agricultural University of Norway. (Man and the Biosphere).

Inglis, J. ed., 1993. Traditional Ecological Knowledge – Concepts and Cases. Pp: 142,International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada

Iyer, K. G. 1996. “Land Alienation, Deforestation and Predicament of the Tribals in Bihar and Tripura: A Comparative Focus.” In Sustainable Development: Ecological and Sociocultural Dimensions. K. G. Iyer, ed. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Jentoft, Svein, and Knut H. Mikalsen 1994. “Regulating Fjord Fisheries: Folk Management or Interest Group Politics?” In Folk Management in the World’s Fisheries: Lessons for Modern Fisheries Management. C. L. Dyer and J. R. McGoodwin, eds. Niwot, CO: The University Press of Colorado.

Johannes, Robert E., ed. 1989. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union (IUCN).

Johnson, A.W. (1972) ‘Individuality and experimentation in traditional agriculture’, Human Ecology 1(2):149-159.

Johnson, Martha, ed. 1992. Lore, Capturing Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Pp 190. Dene Cultural Institute (Hay River) and International Development Research Centre (Ottawa).

Kemf, Elizabeth, ed. 1993. The Law of the Mother: Protecting Indigenous peoples in Protected Areas. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books in association with the World Wildlife Fund and the International Union for the conservation of Nature.

Kilahama, F. B. 1994. “Indigenous Ecological Knowledge: A Vital Tool for Rural Extension Strategies; A Case Study From Shinyanga Region, Tanzania.” Forests, Trees and People Newsletter 24:30-35.

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16 thoughts on “TK Resources

  1. Very interesting and useful site.Traditional Knowledge has got different meaning for different people.But one thing is sure that it is a complete knowledge.

  2. The below free download may be relevant.

    Dear Colleagues
    The below website carries my book entitled: “ Venus Rising: South African Astronomical Beliefs, Customs and Observations”. Please note that you will be able to read and print the book out. You can also search the file using key words of your choosing.

    I trust that you will find the information useful.

    Peter Alcock (Ph.D.)
    Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

    • Good luck with your studies. This is an important subject and one that needs to be understood outside of the indigenous community far better than it now is. There is much to learn about decision-making in the modern world using non-adversarial techniques derived at least in part from indigenous knowledge systems.

  3. I am pursuing PhD in IKS and this site has provided an ample information required for my research work. Thank you.

  4. necesito saber si ustedes tienen trabajo para mis he sido promotora de ausretovicio y tengo experiencia aparte tengo 4 hijos que quieren seguir estudiando les encargo mucho gracias

  5. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you design this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz reply as I’m looking to design my own blog and
    would like to find out where u got this from. thanks a lot

  6. Russian energy giant Gazprom and the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) have signed an agreement on additional gas shipments to China, the Russian company announced on Thursday.
    The deal was struck during a meeting between Gazprom CEO Aleksey Miller and CNPC Chairman of the Board of Directors Dai Houliang on the sidelines of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing.

    “During the meeting, Gazprom and CNPC signed an additional agreement to the gas purchase and sale contract via the East Route for an additional volume of Russian gas supplies to China until the end of 2023,” Gazprom wrote on its Telegram channel.

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